There is no difference in the implementation of any of these - the difference is who uses them and where they are, and whether they have to identify themselves to do so.
Open to any user from any location, no authentication involved
Accessible to a limited audience usually worldwide but authentication is required. These people might be:
Available to members of staff within a company usually only within that companies premises. May extend to other sites across a WAN or VPN
The definition of who and what is a grey area, and the key point is that you should focus on who you want to serve and where they are and how you will identify them. The label Website / Extranet / Intranet is irrelevant